Is Muhammad Prophesied in the Bible?

The Bible. Image by Alex Grodkiewicz. Adapted for Redemption of Humanity. Used under licence.
The Quran. Image by Ashkan Forouzani. Adapted for Redemption of Humanity. Used under licence.

Last edited on 21/Apr/2021

The Bible’s Answer


No, Muhammad, the founder of Islam, is not prophesied in the Bible. In this article, 8 common Bible passages which Muslims claim predict the coming of Muhammad will be examined, and then a brief conclusion concerning Muhammad’s teachings at the end will be discussed. The Bible passages examined in order are: Deuteronomy 18:18, Deuteronomy 33:2, Song of Solomon 5:16, Isaiah 21:13–17, Isaiah 29:12, Habakkuk 3:3, Matthew 21:43, and John 14–16.

The Old Testament

Deuteronomy 18:18

I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. (Deuteronomy 18:18)

Muslims believe that the prophet whom God will raise up here is Muhammad, the one who will be like Moses, whose words God will put in his mouth. They argue that the prophet cannot be Jesus, because they believe Moses is more similar to Muhammad than Jesus, for example, Jesus’ birth was miraculous, not natural, he was not married, and he was regarded by his followers as the Son of God, not exclusively as a messenger of God, all of which are in contrast to both Moses and Muhammad. They also argue that the archangel Gabriel put the words of the Qur’an into Muhammad’s mouth, and that these exact words are written down in the Qur’an; therefore, when God said “I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him”, they believe this is further proof for it referring to Muhammad.

However, the Bible teaches that this passage actually refers to Jesus. In one of his sermons, Peter the apostle taught that the fulfilment of this prophecy has been accomplished in Jesus Christ. The prophet in Deuteronomy 18:18 was said to be the Christ appointed by God, the one whom the prophets told heaven must receive until the time for restoring all things:

But what God foretold by the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ would suffer, he thus fulfilled. 19 Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, 20 that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, 21 whom heaven must receive until the time for restoring all the things about which God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets long ago. 22 Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brothers. You shall listen to him in whatever he tells you. 23 And it shall be that every soul who does not listen to that prophet shall be destroyed from the people.’ 24 And all the prophets who have spoken, from Samuel and those who came after him, also proclaimed these days. 25 You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant that God made with your fathers, saying to Abraham, ‘And in your offspring shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’ 26 God, having raised up his servant, sent him to you first, to bless you by turning every one of you from your wickedness.” (Acts 3:18–26

Everything in this passage clearly refers to Jesus, and not Muhammad. Jesus is the Christ, not Muhammad. Moreover, Jesus taught that Moses wrote of him, and not Muhammad:

For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote of me. — Jesus Christ (John 5:46)

The Gospel accounts teach us that Jesus spoke the words of God, and that everything he said was that which God commanded him to say:

For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure. 35 The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand. (John 3:34–35)

So Jesus answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 17 If anyone’s will is to do God’s will, he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. 18 The one who speaks on his own authority seeks his own glory; but the one who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and in him there is no falsehood. — Jesus Christ (John 7:16–18

I have much to say about you and much to judge, but he who sent me is true, and I declare to the world what I have heard from him.” … So Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. – Jesus Christ (John 8:26, 28

but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God. This is not what Abraham did. — Jesus Christ (John 8:40)

Therefore, Deuteronomy 18:18 definitely refers to Jesus Christ, and, from a biblical perspective, it is completely illogical to believe that it refers to Muhammad.

Deuteronomy 33:2

He said, “The LORD came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand. (Deuteronomy 33:2)

Some Muslims believe that this is a three-part prophecy. They argue that coming from Sinai talks about the appearance of Moses, that the rising up from Seir talks of Jesus, and that the prophet who shone forth from Mount Paran (which is located in Arabia) is Muhammad, because Paran is the place where the children of Ishmael (Muhammad’s ancestors) settled. They also believe it refers to Muhammad because of the phrase “he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand” (some Bible translations say “from his right hand went a fiery law for them”) and that this refers to his conquest of Mecca, where ten thousand men followed him, and then he gave the law contained in the Qur’an.

One very simple objection is that it is not a three-part prophecy at all; Moses is recounting the event when God met the people to speak with them in smoke and fire, to give them the Ten Commandments (this is the “fiery law”). It should also be noted that the passage says the “LORD” shone forth from Mount Paran, not Muhammad. This explains why it says that he came with “flaming fire”, because he descended on the mountain in fire and amongst clouds, thunder, and lighting. The event Moses was referring to is found here:

On the morning of the third day there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud on the mountain and a very loud trumpet blast, so that all the people in the camp trembled. 17 Then Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God, and they took their stand at the foot of the mountain. 18 Now Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke because the LORD had descended on it in fire. The smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain trembled greatly. 19 And as the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him in thunder. 20 The LORD came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain. And the LORD called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. (Exodus 19:16–20)

But what about the “ten thousands of holy ones”? Also mentioned in Zechariah 14:5, the holy ones are God’s angels.¹,² They are God’s created attendants, agents, and supervisors of his realm (Exodus 23:20–22Daniel 4:13, 17, 23–25Luke 2:13–15).² They obey God’s commandments and carry out his will (Psalm 103:20). When they are gathered together, they are called the assembly, or the council, of the holy ones (Psalm 89:5–7).² The way the Lord came from the ten thousands of holy ones (angels) is similar to the way in which Jesus will return to earth, with his mighty angels (Matthew 25:312 Thessalonians 1:7).¹ Therefore, because this passage refers to the Lord, it is not a prophecy concerning Muhammad.

Song of Solomon 5:16

His mouth is most sweet, and he is altogether desirable. This is my beloved and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem. (Song of Solomon 5:16)

Some Muslims believe that because the Hebrew word for “altogether desirable” is “muhammad-im”, more correctly pronounced as “machmad-im”, which sounds like “Muhammad” in Arabic, this passage therefore refers to Muhammad. However, this is a completely illogical conclusion. Firstly, Hebrew and Arabic are different languages, and similar words can have very different meanings, hence why “machmad-im” is translated as “altogether desirable” (See more information for this word on Blue Letter Bible). Another reason why it is an illogical argument is because Song of Solomon is a book about a dialogue between King Solomon and his wife in Jerusalem, where they exchange loving, romanticised compliments to each other of a sexual nature:

Go out, O daughters of Zion, and look upon King Solomon, with the crown with which his mother crowned him on the day of his wedding, on the day of the gladness of his heart. (Song of Solomon 3:11)

You have captivated my heart, my sister, my bride; you have captivated my heart with one glance of your eyes, with one jewel of your necklace. 10 How beautiful is your love, my sister, my bride! How much better is your love than wine, and the fragrance of your oils than any spice! — Solomon (Song of Solomon 4:9–10)

My beloved is radiant and ruddy, distinguished among ten thousand. 11 His head is the finest gold; his locks are wavy, black as a raven. 12 His eyes are like doves beside streams of water, bathed in milk, sitting beside a full pool. — Solomon’s bride (Song of Solomon 5:10–12)

It is illogical to say that when Solomon’s bride was complimenting her husband, whom she calls her beloved, she suddenly complimented Muhammad and called him her beloved instead, near the middle of the book. Instead, the English Bible correctly translates the word as something along the lines of “altogether desirable.”

Isaiah 21:7–13

The oracle concerning Arabia. In the thickets in Arabia you will lodge, O caravans of Dedanites. 14 To the thirsty bring water; meet the fugitive with bread, O inhabitants of the land of Tema. 15 For they have fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, from the bent bow, and from the press of battle. 16 For thus the Lord said to me, “Within a year, according to the years of a hired worker, all the glory of Kedar will come to an end. 17 And the remainder of the archers of the mighty men of the sons of Kedar will be few, for the LORD, the God of Israel, has spoken.” (Isaiah 21:13–17)

Some Muslims believe that this is a prophecy concerning Muhammad fleeing Mecca from persecution, while his house was surrounded by enemies, and that it describes the Battle of Badr, where the Quraish of Mecca (the Kedar) were defeated. However the problem with this opinion is that, according to Abdullah Ibrahim of the Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry, Muhammad fled on 20 June 622 AD, and the battle was fought in March 624 AD. That’s one year and eight months later, therefore, it was not “within a year” as the Bible said it must be. In fact, this prophecy was fulfilled before Muhammad was even born. In 732 BC the Assyrians attacked the Arabs, followed by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar (Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry). According to The Lutheran Study Bible, in the footnote of Isaiah 21:14, this conflict was quelled by Sargon II firstly, and then by Sennacherib.

Isaiah 29:12

And when they give the book to one who cannot read, saying, “Read this,” he says, “I cannot read.” (Isaiah 29:12)

Some Muslims believe that this passage is a prophesy of Muhammad, because they believe it refers to an illiterate prophet receiving a message of God, in other words, Muhammad – who could not read or write – receiving God’s revelation from the angel Gabriel. According to Islam, when Gabriel said to Muhammad “Read”, he replied by saying that he could not.

It is very easy to make any claim on a Bible passage that is taken completely out of context, but this also has disastrous effects most of the time, especially with this passage. This is what the surrounding verses of the passage say:

And the multitude of all the nations that fight against Ariel, all that fight against her and her stronghold and distress her, shall be like a dream, a vision of the night. 8 As when a hungry man dreams he is eating and awakes with his hunger not satisfied, or as when a thirsty man dreams he is drinking and awakes faint, with his thirst not quenched, so shall the multitude of all the nations be that fight against Mount Zion. 9 Astonish yourselves and be astonished; blind yourselves and be blind! Be drunk, but not with wine; stagger, but not with strong drink! 10 For the LORD has poured out upon you a spirit of deep sleep, and has closed your eyes (the prophets), and covered your heads (the seers). 11 And the vision of all this has become to you like the words of a book that is sealed. When men give it to one who can read, saying, “Read this,” he says, “I cannot, for it is sealed.” 12 And when they give the book to one who cannot read, saying, “Read this,” he says, “I cannot read.” 13 And the Lord said: “Because this people draw near with their mouth and honour me with their lips, while their hearts are far from me, and their fear of me is a commandment taught by men, therefore, behold, I will again do wonderful things with this people, with wonder upon wonder; and the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the discernment of their discerning men shall be hidden.” (Isaiah 29:7–14)

The context is talking about God’s judgement against the nations that fight against Jerusalem. Because of their stubborn rebellion and disbelief against God, he has poured out on them a spirit of deep sleep, which makes them spiritually blind and deaf to understanding the word of God, and their example is like someone who can read but is given a sealed book, making it unreadable, and someone who is illiterate and given a book. Verses 11 and 12 are talking about people who make excuses about not reading God’s message because they don’t want to hear it. Verse 13 is actually quoted by Jesus in Matthew 15:7–9 with regards to the Jews who nullified the word of God by their traditions. If Isaiah 29:12 really refers to Muhammad, then it is saying that he is a stubborn, rebellious man, who made excuses about denying God’s message, and is under judgement.

Habakkuk 3:3

God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. His splendour covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise. (Habakkuk 3:3)

Some Muslims believe that the “Holy One” in this passage refers to Muhammad. They believe that Muhammad migrated from Paran (which they believe is Mecca) to Medina due to persecution. However, it is blasphemous to say that this passage refers to Muhammad, because it is actually talking about God. This is because God is the Holy One from Mount Paran. Habakkuk identifies God as the Holy One in the first chapter:

Are you not from everlasting, O LORD my God, my Holy One? We shall not die. O LORD, you have ordained them as a judgement, and you, O Rock, have established them for reproof. (Habakkuk 1:12)

Therefore, to say that someone else is the Holy One in chapter 3 is an inconsistent objection. Furthermore, the splendour of mere men cannot cover the heavens, because only God is omnipresent, and the earth could not be full of their praise, because praise belongs to God alone. This passage actually reflects the thought of Deuteronomy 33:2, when God shone forth from Mount Paran with his angels:

He said, “The LORD came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand. (Deuteronomy 33:2)

Lastly, Paran is not Mecca. It is in northwestern Sinai, which is far away from there, according to David Wood of Answering Muslims. In the Old Testament, the Jews were travelling in the wilderness of Paran on their way to Israel (Numbers 10:11–12) (Answering Muslims).

The New Testament

Matthew 21:43

Therefore I tell you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people producing its fruits. — Jesus Christ (Matthew 21:43)

Some Muslims believe that because Jesus is the last Jewish prophet, when he said that the kingdom of God will be taken away from them, that is, the unbelieving Israelites, and given to a people producing its fruit, that it refers to the Ishmaelites (from whom descended the Arabians), whom God promised will become a great nation (Genesis 21:1213, 18), and that the last prophet who came from them is Muhammad.

However, according to the Bible, Jesus was not referring to the Arabs or the Ishmaelites, but rather to the Gentiles, that is to say, all the non-Jews in the world. In his earthly ministry, Jesus primarily came to the house of Israel:

He answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” – Jesus Christ (Matthew 15:24)

Jesus taught that salvation was of the Jews, and that they worshipped God properly, but also noted that the day was coming when all people from around the world would worship God in spirit and truth, whether they are a Jew or a Gentile:

A woman from Samaria came to draw water. … 19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 20 Our fathers worshipped on this mountain, but you say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship.” 21 Jesus said to her, “Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. 22 You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. 23 But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” (John 4:7, 19–24)

This time fully arrived upon Jesus’ resurrection, and after having built the foundation of his church in Jerusalem, he instructed his disciples to proclaim the gospel in his name to all nations, beginning in Jerusalem:

Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” 45 Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, 46 and said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, 47 and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. (Luke 24:44–47)

Jesus redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us as our substitute, if we believe in him, for every human except for Jesus has failed to uphold the law. The Bible teaches that although the Jews are descended from Abraham biologically, whose offspring God promised would be blessed, the true way to become Abraham’s heir is through faith in Jesus Christ, so that through faith both Jews and Gentiles can receive the blessing and promise, which includes receiving the Holy Spirit and eternal life (faith in Christ is equally necessary for the salvation of Jews as it is for Gentiles):

Know then that it is those of faith who are the sons of Abraham. 8 And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, “In you shall all the nations be blessed.” 9 So then, those who are of faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith. 10 For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse; for it is written, “Cursed be everyone who does not abide by all things written in the Book of the Law, and do them.” 11 Now it is evident that no one is justified before God by the law, for “The righteous shall live by faith.” 12 But the law is not of faith, rather “The one who does them shall live by them.” 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us—for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who is hanged on a tree”— 14 so that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we might receive the promised Spirit through faith. (Galatians 3:7–14)

for in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith. 27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise. (Galatians 3:26–29)

John 14–16

And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you for ever, 17 even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you. — Jesus Christ (John 14:16–17

“But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.” — Jesus Christ (John 14:26

But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me. — Jesus Christ (John 15:26

Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. — Jesus Christ (John 16:7

I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13 When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14 He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. — Jesus Christ (John 16:1214)

Muslims believe that the Helper (some translations say “Comforter”) who is the “Spirit of truth” in these passages is Muhammad. They say that it cannot refer to the Holy Spirit because Jesus said that the Holy Spirit will only come when Jesus goes away (dies), yet the Bible says that John received the Holy Spirit in his mother’s womb (Luke 1:14–15) and that Jesus was anointed by him in his baptism (Luke 3:21–22). Some argue that because Jesus was one Comforter, then the other Comforter must also be mortal like him.

However, there is a very simple objection to these claims. Islam teaches that God sent Muhammad to be his messenger on earth. It also teaches that Muhammad is the Helper, who is prophesied in Bible passages like John 14:16. However, if this is true, then this poses a serious problem to Islam, because in these same prophesies we are taught that the one who sends the Helper is Jesus:

Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. — Jesus Christ (John 16:7)

“But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me. — Jesus Christ (John 15:26)

In other words, if these passages are really talking about Muhammad, then they teach that Jesus is the one who sent Muhammad to be his messenger on earth, so therefore, Jesus is Muhammad’s God. All of the passages concerning the coming of the Holy Spirit say that he is sent from both the Father and the Son, who are the one God. Another problem for those who teach that the Helper refers to Muhammad, is that Jesus specifically states that the Helper is the “Holy Spirit”:

But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. (John 14:26)

So if Jesus really was referring to the Holy Spirit, why then did he say that he (the Spirit) will not come to them unless he (Jesus) goes away first? It is because the Holy Spirit was not given to anyone in Jesus’ time on earth before his death and resurrection. We are taught that Jesus received the Holy Spirit in his baptism:

Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heavens were opened, 22 and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form, like a dove; and a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.” (Luke 3:21–22)

Therefore, while Jesus was on earth, as the sinless and divine Son of God who was filled with the Holy Spirit, he was enough for the people to be taught by him and learn from him. John the Baptist prophesied that although he baptises with water at the present time, one day Jesus will baptise us with the Holy Spirit and fire:

“I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. (Matthew 3:11)

The Holy Spirit was present amongst the people of Jesus’ time within Jesus himself, but he was not given to anyone else until John the Baptist’s (Matthew 3:11) and Jesus’ prophesies (John 16:7) came true on the day of Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit was poured out on the believers in Jerusalem.

And while staying with them he ordered them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, “you heard from me; 5 for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.” 6 So when they had come together, they asked him, “Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?” 7 He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” (Acts 1:4–8)

When the day of Pentecost arrived, they were all together in one place. 2 And suddenly there came from heaven a sound like a mighty rushing wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. 3 And divided tongues as of fire appeared to them and rested on each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance. (Acts 2:1–4)


This was not an exhaustive list of every passage Muslims may point to in their attempts to find support for Muhammad being prophesied in the Bible, however, what this article has done is refute some of the most common ones used. Because this has been established, it casts doubt on any other scriptures they may try and use to suit their pre-conceived beliefs, as people in the cults also do to the Bible. Muhammad denied the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, which are fundamental teachings of the Bible. As mentioned before, Jesus said that all the prophets and the scriptures teach his suffering, death, and resurrection for the forgiveness of mankind’s sins (Luke 24:4447). When Peter the apostle said to Jesus that he would never be killed and raised again, Jesus sharply rebuked him by saying “Get behind me, Satan”:

From that time Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised. 22 And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him, saying, “Far be it from you, Lord! This shall never happen to you.” 23 But he turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a hindrance to me. For you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of man.” (Matthew 16:21–23)

Peter formally denied the death and resurrection of Jesus by the influence of Satan, who causes us to set our minds on the things of men, and not God. However, he repented of this later on, and then proclaimed Jesus as the crucified and risen Saviour of the world. The fact that Muhammad denied Christ’s death and resurrection shows us that he did this by the influence of Satan, and not by God; but unlike Peter, Muhammad did not repent of this. Muhammad also denied that Jesus Christ is the Son of God (This means that he is divine in the same sense that God the Father is). However, the Bible warns us that to deny the Son is a teaching of the antichrist and that it means rejecting God:

Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, he who denies the Father and the Son. 23 No one who denies the Son has the Father. Whoever confesses the Son has the Father also. (1 John 2:22–23)

Whoever believes in the Son of God has the testimony in himself. Whoever does not believe God has made him a liar, because he has not believed in the testimony that God has borne concerning his Son. 11 And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. 12 Whoever has the Son has life; whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life. (1 John 5:10–12)

Therefore, because of these two fundamental biblical teachings that Muhammad rejected (as well as the Trinity, salvation by grace alone, plus more), this means that he can’t have been prophesied at all in the Bible, and that Islam is a false religion. People who claim to be prophets but who reject the teachings of the Bible are called false prophets. Jesus warned us that false prophets would come, such as Muhammad, and deceive many:

“Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves. 16 You will recognize them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thorn bushes, or figs from thorn bushes? 17 So, every healthy tree bears good fruit, but the diseased tree bears bad fruit. 18 A healthy tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a diseased tree bear good fruit. 19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 20 Thus you will recognize them by their fruits. (Matthew 7:15–20)

Bibliography of Muslim Arguments

Ally, S 2010, What the Bible says about Prophet Muhammad (pbuh),, accessed on 12 May 2017, <>

Naik, Z, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in the Bible, Islam101, accessed on 12 May 2017, <>

Badawi, J 2013, Muhammad in the Bible, IslamiCity, accessed on 12 May 2017, <>

Kaleem, A M, Biblical prophecies about Muhammad(saw), Al Islam, accessed on 12 May 2017, <>

Bibliography of Christian Objections

Wood, D, Shamoum, S 2013, Zakir Naik Proves That Allah Is a Mouse! (Song of Solomon 5:16), Acts17Apologetics, last accessed on 13 May 2017, <>

Wood, D, Shamoum, S 2013, Is Isaiah 29:12 a Prophecy about Muhammad? A Reply to Zakir Naik, Acts17Apologetics, last accessed on 13 May 2017, <>

Wood, D, Shamoum, S 2013, Zakir Naik Proves That Jesus Is Muhammad’s God! (John 14:16), Acts17Apologetics, last accessed on 13 May 2017, <>

Wood, D 2014, Muslim Claims That Muhammad Is God (an Examination of Habakkuk 3:3), Answering Muslims, accessed on 14 May 2017, <>

Turner, R, Does Deuteronomy 33:2 predict the coming of Muhammad?, Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry, accessed on 14 May 2017, <>

Ibrahim, A, Is Muhammad Found in the Bible?, Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry, accessed on 15 May 2017, <>

Reference List

1. Carson, D A, France, R T, Motyer, J A, Wenham, G J (eds) 1953, New Bible Commentary, Inter-Varsity Press, Nottingham, p. 1419

2. Engelbrecht, E A, Murray, S R, Paavola, D E, Prange, V H, Sorensen, R A, Walther, M P (eds) 2009, The Lutheran Study Bible, Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, p. 783, 933

All scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a division of Good News Publishers unless specified otherwise.